Mandala A, Dobrinskikh E, Janssen RC, Fiehn O, D'Alessandro A, Friedman JE, Jonscher KR. Maternal Pyrroloquinoline Quinone Supplementation Improves Offspring Liver Bioactive Lipid Profiles throughout the Lifespan and Protects against the Development of Adult NAFLD.

Int J Mol Sci. 2022 May 27;23(11):6043.

Maternal obesity and consumption of a high-fat diet significantly elevate risk for pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), affecting 10% of children in the US. Almost half of these children are diagnosed with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a leading etiology for liver transplant. Animal models show that signs of liver injury and perturbed lipid metabolism associated with NAFLD begin in utero; however, safe dietary therapeutics to blunt developmental programming of NAFLD are unavailable. Using a mouse model of maternal Western-style diet (WD), we previously showed that pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), a potent dietary antioxidant, protected offspring of WD-fed dams from development of NAFLD and NASH. Here, we used untargeted mass spectrometry-based lipidomics to delineate lipotoxic effects of WD on offspring liver and identify lipid targets of PQQ. PQQ exposure during pregnancy altered hepatic lipid profiles of WD-exposed offspring, upregulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α signaling and mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation to markedly attenuate triglyceride accumulation beginning in utero. Surprisingly, the abundance of very long-chain ceramides, important in promoting gut barrier and hepatic function, was significantly elevated in PQQ-treated offspring. PQQ exposure reduced the hepatic phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylethanolamine (PC/PE) ratio in WD-fed offspring and improved glucose tolerance. Notably, levels of protective n - 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were elevated in offspring exposed to PQQ, beginning in utero, and the increase in n - 3 PUFAs persisted into adulthood. Our findings suggest that PQQ supplementation during gestation and lactation augments pathways involved in the biosynthesis of long-chain fatty acids and plays a unique role in modifying specific bioactive lipid species critical for protection against NAFLD risk in later life.




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