Rationale: At present, the research on the prevention of schizophrenia is still in its infancy. Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) has potential to treat psychological and neurological diseases including schizophrenia. However, the preventive effect of PQQ on schizophrenia remains unclear.
Objectives: In this study, we aimed to examine the preventive effect of supplementation of dietary PQQ from pregnancy or after birth on dizocilpine (MK-801)-induced schizophrenia-like behaviors in mice.
Results: Supplementation of dietary PQQ from pregnancy could effectively prevent MK-801-induced weight gain decrease, hyperlocomotion, stereotypical behavior, ataxia, exploratory activity decrease, social interaction disorder, memory deficit, and depression in mice. Supplementation of dietary PQQ after birth could effectively prevent MK-801-induced weight gain decrease, stereotypical behavior, ataxia, and memory deficit in mice. Female mice responded to a greater degree than males in preventing MK-801-induced weight gain decrease in both forms of PQQ supplementation. For mice that began PQQ supplementation after birth, females performed better than males in preventing MK-801-induced ataxia, memory deficit, and depression. For mice that began PQQ supplementation from pregnancy, males performed better than females in preventing MK-801-induced memory deficit. In vitro experiments indicated that PQQ supplementation in the earlier stage of life contributed to the growth of neurons and the development of neurites.
Conclusions: Our current study suggested that PQQ supplementation from pregnancy or postpartum could prevent some schizophrenia-like behaviors induced by MK-801 in mice. Our work supported the potential usage of dietary supplement of PQQ in preventing or alleviating symptoms associated with schizophrenia.